Curriculum for Wales 2022 – leaving nothing to chance


We’ve had the blueprint, and we’ve been given draft documents.

Now, almost six months to the day that a consultation on Wales’ new curriculum outline was first launched, we have sight of our collective feedback.

The independent analysis of Wales’ hopes and aspirations, worries and concerns was drawn from 1,680 responses and published Friday on the Welsh Government’s website.

Involving eight authors and spanning more than 90 pages, the paper provides a useful overview of the some of the key themes emanating from the ‘Curriculum for Wales 2022’ debate.

It makes for essential reading for those directly involved in the design, development and implementation of the new curriculum – albeit there is so much more to be discussed and determined.

I was drawn initially to a short statement in the report’s executive summary, which makes clear its analysis:

‘…is intended to support and inform ongoing efforts to refine and improve the curriculum before it is rolled out in classrooms across Wales.’

It is with that in mind that I write this blog, which builds upon my own personal submission to the curriculum consultation earlier this summer.

Cause for optimism

For me, there is much cause for optimism in the Welsh Government’s reform agenda – and our shared ‘National Mission’ for change.

There is a growing respect from those at the top of the tree for our industrious teaching workforce; a new culture of collaboration; and a genuine desire to put right what we have got wrong in the past.

Education Minister Kirsty Williams is passionate, sincere and a true champion for a profession that gives so much to so many.

But for all the goodwill and positive energy evident in our education system, there remain significant challenges to overcome.

The issue of school funding is particularly bracing, and the impact of poverty on attainment has blighted our society for far too long.

Capital developments are ongoing, but often in arrears, and there is genuine concern that capacity at all levels of education delivery is at breaking point.

As for the curriculum itself, there are a number of things documented in the independent analysis worthy of consideration.

I have already listed four things that I would personally seek to address, and I’m not yet confident that we’ve done so sufficiently.

We should not, however, fear challenge and interrogation; it is inevitable that with radical change comes uncertainty, and you wouldn’t be human without some level of apprehension about what lies ahead.

Seismic shift

I want to focus here on the notion of subsidiarity, and the very deliberate rowing back from prescription that affords teachers in Wales new levels of professional autonomy.

On the one hand, liberating teachers from the straitjacket of text books and tick lists will build agency, encourage more bespoke learning pathways and offer children richer learning experiences based on school context and individual need.

But equally, there is a widely-held (and entirely justified) view that releasing the shackles completely could lead to greater inequity and segregation of pupils on the basis of their knowledge and understanding of the world in which we live.

The following submission to the consultation, by a primary school senior leader, encapsulates perfectly the moral dilemma facing so many in Wales:

‘There is already wide variation in the quality of education in Wales and the gap between those pupils affected by poverty and disadvantage is not closing at a fast enough rate. Whilst the Four Purposes are a powerful and purposeful vision, in its current form, the draft curriculum will lead to greater variation in the quality, breadth and content of what children in Wales learn which will increase the gap rather than close it.’

It is ironic that having spent much of the past decade bemoaning the high and unacceptable level of variation that exists within our education system, in two or three years’ time, variation – in both curriculum content and delivery – will be actively encouraged.

That, in and of itself, is a seismic shift in approach – and an almost complete U-turn to that which we have become accustomed.

Medley of knowledge and understanding

The idea that teachers should be empowered to do as they see fit for their own learners is as romantic as it is compelling, and built on the rose-tinted assumption that all teachers are good teachers and all schools are good schools.

A potted history of education in Wales since devolution tells you that, regretfully, this is not the case.

I can honestly say that subsidiarity, without any real form of uniformity over and above the very loose curriculum framework they have been given, is one of if not the foremost concern of educators I have come into contact with over the past few years.

I must admit, therefore, to being somewhat surprised by the report’s conclusion that:

‘…the substantive concerns expressed by the respondents surrounding the perceived dilution of subject disciplines, the lack of prescription within the curriculum, and the inclusion or exclusion of specific knowledge or skills were not widely held.’

Perhaps I am mixing in the wrong circles (which is curious, given I speak to or work with teachers on a near daily basis), but this does not marry with what I have been told so often on my journeys around Wales.

There is a genuine fear that if teachers are free to teach whatever they consider appropriate from one school to the next, it is inevitable that gaps will develop and children will emerge from their compulsory education with a random medley of knowledge and understanding.

Granted, pupils leave school with varying abilities and competencies now – but they do so within the confines of a common structure that stems, at least in part, from nationally-agreed and moderated content.

Moving forward, what is taught could depend solely on an individual teacher’s ideology, lens or general aptitude – and without any expectation as to what pupils should have learned by the age of 16, we run the risk of widening the chasm between our more affluent and deprived communities.

Forced to rely on the views of others, children from more supportive families will find it easier to plug holes in their knowledge, not least because of their access to technology or a particularly committed parent.

Inadvertently airbrushed

Development of the education workforce is of course crucial to the reform agenda, but it cannot be assumed that every teacher in Wales is willing and able to make the monumental professional learning journey we are demanding of them.

Neither can we expect school leaders to guarantee every learner in every class is developing appropriately, against the loose framework presented in our new curriculum outline.

Take the Humanities Area of Learning and Experience (AoLE).

By encompassing geography, history, religious education, business studies and social studies, it doubtless has one of the broadest of all AoLE remits.

Nevertheless, supporting guidance makes clear that:

‘As a matter of principle, practitioners should be free to decide on the organisation of this Area of Learning and Experience, and the choice of content to be covered. This autonomy allows for content to be adapted to suit the differing needs of learners.’

What Matters statements, Achievement Outcomes and Progression Steps offer strong foundations on which to build, and the need for teachers to develop their own curricula is well understood.

But what I find difficult to reconcile is that pupils in different schools could leave with a very different understanding of the defining events in our recent history.

Imagine a world in which school-leavers, ready and primed for the world of work and further education, know nothing about the Industrial Revolution, World Wars or Holocaust.

It is unlikely yet plausible that reference to some of modern society’s most pivotal moments will be inadvertently airbrushed under the auspices of the new curriculum.

And given the apocalyptic political landscape we are having to endure, that should be a warning to us all.

So what then is the solution?

Essential core canon

To begin with, we need a grown-up, mature and respectful conversation about what really matters to us in 21st Century Wales.

We need to decide how much knowledge every child should reasonably expect to accumulate over the life of their education – and, more specifically, what it is they are required to learn about.

Respecting the notion of subsidiarity on which the curriculum is built, there is, I believe, a strong argument for the inclusion of a carefully considered roster of non-negotiables; things that all children, regardless of where in Wales they study, should have an introduction to.

These could be broad concepts or more specific items clustered together under respective AoLEs.

The ‘What Matters’, based as they are on the essence of learning, are very much open to interpretation and not clear enough as to the range of ‘things’ one can typically be expected to draw upon when teaching across the age range.

An essential core canon of ideas, themes and/or events would ensure at least a level of consistency – and all but guarantee that no child leaves school oblivious to some of the biggest influences on the modern world.

At the moment, there seems to be an assumption that things will balance themselves out organically and, over time, a common digest will develop.

But assuming that is the case (and there is no guarantee that it will), what happens in between?

For me, this process owes too much to chance and could lead to generations of learners falling further behind their peers.

National debate

A national debate on what pupils need to know to live, learn and work in Wales and the world (over and above the What Matters) would, in my view, be a natural next step for policymakers.

And in the true spirit of co-construction championed by the Welsh Government, teachers would be fundamental to that conversation.

It would be up to the profession to decide what the entitlement of state-educated learners in Wales is, and how that is manifested within our curriculum blueprint.

Furthermore, a discussion on the level of detail that sits beneath our What Matters statements would surely feed into and pre-empt forthcoming debate around the future of qualifications.

I want this curriculum to work, I really do; not least because so many have given so much of their time, energy and goodwill to making Successful Futures a reality.

It is very difficult to argue against Donaldson’s Four Purposes and the framing of education as a continuum, without rigid checkpoints hampering pupil progress.

So too can I see real potential in cross-curricular working, and encouraging specialist teachers to work collaboratively with others across traditional subject disciplines.

But we cannot be ignorant to the challenges that distinctiveness presents.

Curriculum snobbery

Throughout the curriculum development process, I have heard of a great number of arguments dismissed as being a ‘misinterpretation’ or ‘misunderstanding’ of what the curriculum is ‘all about’.

Take the following statement, again from the feedback report:

‘Across responses, people have clearly given different weight and attention to different aspects of the curriculum, both conceptually and from a practical perspective. In some cases there are interpretations that may not accurately reflect the spirit or intention of the new curriculum. It is possible, for example, that some who wish to see greater prominence being given to certain bodies of knowledge or subject disciplines may not have understood the curriculum in terms of seeking to provide teachers with greater control and flexibility in how they teach them.’

Comments such as these are becoming a little tiresome and, if I’m honest, slightly patronising.

They suggest a hierarchy of curriculum knowledge and, presumably, give greater cachet to those directly involved in its evolution.

We must be wary of the propensity for curriculum snobbery, and allow all with a stake in Welsh education the opportunity to comment constructively on it.

Allowing only those ‘in the know’ to speak authoritatively on our reform agenda is a dangerous game, and risks alienating the vast majority of the education workforce (given far more have been watching and waiting, than actually participating).

Indeed, I have no doubt that there will be some who sigh at the comments made within this blog – and who are fed up with my entertaining of the same old arguments.

But the fact that we are still having these discussions suggests to me that answers to some of the big issues of the day have not yet been agreed or, at very least, properly articulated.

As we march on towards final publication in January, there is still time to allay some of the education system’s most pressing fears, and ensure Curriculum for Wales 2022 launches on the soundest of footings.

Challenge and celebration as education’s world leaders land in Wales


‘The world is watching’.

‘The eyes of the international community are upon us’.

‘Our reforms are putting Welsh education on the world map’.

If you’ve been to an education conference in Wales in the past three years, you’re likely to have heard a variation of one (or all) of the above.

The Education Minister, senior civil servants, advisers and general partisans of the Welsh reform agenda are in little doubt that what we are doing is of genuine interest to those in other jurisdictions.

In fact, educators in Wales would be forgiven for feeling a tad uncomfortable about the apparent level of adulation among colleagues overseas.

While there is undoubtedly political capital in developing international interest in and support for one’s policies, that Welsh education is so firmly entrenched on the world stage simply serves to ratchet up the pressure on Wales to improve its standing in comparable benchmarks.

The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) – now just a few months from publication – and its founding fathers at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) haven’t exactly been gushing of our performance relative to other nations over time.

But let’s not go there now. A new vision for education in Wales has superseded all that went before it and with an innovative new curriculum on the horizon, there is fresh optimism that a very challenging corner has been turned.

It is doubtless with that positive outlook in mind that Kirsty Williams and her team will this week welcome some of the world’s leading educational experts to Wales for a whistle-stop tour of all we have to offer.

‘Stimulating discourse’

The Atlantic Rim Collaboratory (ARC) is a global group of education systems intent on sharing best practice and stimulating discourse by providing ‘high level contact with world thought leaders’.

Its vision, it says, is to advance values of equity, excellence, wellbeing, inclusion, democracy and human rights for all students within high-quality, professionally-run systems.

For Wales and the Welsh Government, however, the visit of ARC to the Welsh capital is about much more than that and provides policymakers and key stakeholders a unique opportunity to share with some of education’s movers and shakers the ‘National Mission’ to raise standards in Welsh schools.

The fourth ‘ARC Summit’ will see representatives from eight systems across the world descend on Cardiff tomorrow for a four-day event programme, featuring contributions from the likes of Andy Hargreaves, Pasi Sahlberg and Steve Munby.

Delegates from Scotland, Nova Scotia, Iceland, Uruguay and Finland are all due to attend.

Make no mistake, this will be a PR offensive like no other.

And why wouldn’t it be, given the unquestionable international cachet carried by each of the summit’s participating members?

If Hargreaves and co like what they see, word will spread that Wales is a nation worthy of interest – not ridicule. That can only be a good thing.

Celebrating excellence

I have written on numerous occasions that Wales has much to be proud of and we must be more open to celebrating the excellence that exists in our schools.

There is certainly some truth in the OECD’s assertion that Wales is not a strong enough cheerleader for what it does well.

I look at high-flying countries like Canada – and its legion of experts that sell a very positive message across the globe – and wonder if we are doing enough to promote our system on the world stage.

ARC offers the perfect platform through which to do just that.

What is less clear, however, is exactly how much challenge and scrutiny the Welsh Government is willing to shoulder, and assuming our esteemed guests have thoughts on how made-in-Wales policy can be bettered, what is up for grabs and what is set in stone.

Indeed, it would be interesting to learn as the summit develops, which of Wales’ education policies are subject to change – and which are not.

After all, the Welsh reform agenda is very much up and running already.

Finally, a word of caution: as good as it is having an international spotlight on Wales, we must not lose sight of the pressing need to ensure our own education community is fully abreast of policy developments.

It is important that key messages are delivered (and heard) at home as well as abroad, and we ignore internal communication at our peril.

School’s out for summer… but curriculum refinement is only just beginning


And relax!

The summer term is finally over and teachers the length and breadth of the UK have downed tools for a well-earned break.

In Wales, a frantic end to another action-packed academic year culminated in the closing of the Welsh Government’s consultation into its new draft curriculum.

A roadshow of regional engagement events took comment in real-time, while upward of 600 people are said to have submitted their feedback online.

So what happens next?

In the short-term, we all go on holiday… but when we return in September, those responsible for wading through stakeholder observations will have their work cut out.

If the curriculum is to be ready for dissemination in January, as trailed by the Welsh Government, newly-established Quality Improvement (QI) groups face a race against time to decide what works and what doesn’t.

When you factor in the month lost to R&R and the time it will take to design, proof and publish new materials, Wales’ curriculum navigators won’t have long to consider diligently all representation.

‘Listening and refining’

We have entered the phase in our curriculum reform journey coined by Education Minister Kirsty Williams as ‘listening and refining’.

But with listening invariably comes some difficult decisions.

Feedback may, in some cases, elicit broad agreement and a quick and straightforward amendment to the framing of a ‘What Matters’ statement or ‘Progression Step’.

But there will doubtless be other responses that give rise to much more significant changes that challenge the very essence of the curriculum blueprint and its overarching philosophy.

Judgments on what to do will divide opinion, but consensus must be found.

There is no question that QI groups – of Pioneer Schools, AoLE leads and invited experts – have a formidable task in driving our new curriculum forward, with a tight political timeline working very much against them.

But for the consultation to hold water, and for non-Pioneers to input meaningfully into the curriculum, those steering development must not take personally constructive contributions from outside the inner sanctum.

There is a natural tendency in these situations for Pioneers to be overly protective of their meticulously crafted creation; let’s not forget that draft documents have been all but four years in the making, and have involved many days and weeks camped in hotels and conference centres in every corner of the country.

Like a film director fielding questions at the premiere of their new movie, it is perfectly understandable that our curriculum creators will seek to defend and provide justification for what they have unveiled to the world.

And having invested so much time and energy into the writing process, they have certainly earned the right to speak confidently about what they have presented to colleagues across the system.

But equally, one can become ‘too close’ to the end product and blinded to comment and analysis wrongly construed as criticism.

Critical friends

If teacher ownership of the curriculum is indeed paramount, then it is vital stakeholders everywhere can rest assured their voices have been heard.

Nothing must be dismissed out of hand and all representation must be duly considered.

The addition of external observers or, better still, ‘critical friends’ into the refinement mix is an intervention worthy of contemplation and would surely help in releasing pressure on the small group of people charged with undertaking such an important role.

What’s more, it will go some way to calming those concerned about the integrity of the consultation and refinement process more generally.

At very least, transparency regarding the make-up of QI groups, and appropriate documentation of the steps taken to support their decision-making, would be most welcome.

In the meantime, let us all rest up, enjoy what is left of the summer and recharge the batteries ready for the start of the autumn term.

Something tells me we’re going to need it…




Time to re-think PISA’s place in Welsh education


There is nothing in education that attracts media headlines quite like ‘PISA’.

Conducted every three years by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) measures the knowledge and core skills of 15-year-olds as they near the end of their compulsory education.

It uses a representative sample of pupils from more than 70 countries to gauge relative performance and highlight perceived strengths and areas for improvement.

As such, unlike more traditional external exams (which tend to be specific to their respective jurisdictions), PISA provides a measure by which countries across the world can be compared.

Not surprisingly, this is an attractive proposition for sector journalists (as well as the political elite) and is the closest thing to an international league table of state schooling.

Yet, despite there being less than six months until the next PISA results are published, there has been precious little mention of them in Wales.

This in itself is curious, given the way in which successive Welsh governments have drawn on PISA to effect change.

Make no mistake, PISA has – at least in part – fuelled education policy in Wales (as it has in many other participating countries) for the best part of a decade.

Why then, so close to publication, has PISA received so little air time?

For me, the answer is simple – curriculum.

Realigning expectations

Kirsty Williams’ tenure as Education Minister has been dominated by a re-imagining of what and how children learn in Welsh classrooms, and development of Professor Graham Donaldson’s Successful Futures has taken precedence over everything else.

In some respects, Wales’ curriculum project has narrowed our focus and provided a cornerstone on which we can rebuild our entire education system.

It has renewed debate around assessment and qualifications, and triggered the introduction of new professional standards and teacher education; the curriculum is the glue that holds our education reform together.

But there are sure to be unintended consequences.

I asked in my last contribution to this blog whether putting all of our eggs into the basket of Successful Futures has meant we have lost sight of other things.

I suggested that a realigning of expectations with regards to other key initiatives was required.

Perhaps the most significant re-calibration relates to PISA, and our medium to long-term prospects of improvement.

Regrettably, I have all but written off Wales’ hopes of a notable PISA revival this time around.

In fact, given the heavy demands of curriculum development, I think we will have done well to stabilise our position in this year’s world rankings.

Notwithstanding the restorative interventions that were put in place by the Welsh Government in the run-up to PISA testing last year (including the appointment of a PISA tsar to rally round participating schools), I fear there has been too much noise in the system to distract those chosen to take part.

The reality, of course, is that those distractions – and the reform agenda currently working its way through Welsh education – will not impact on PISA outcomes for a number of years.

In effect, the PISA results of 2019 will be reflective only of a bygone system dating back several ministers.

Indeed, they are not in any way a reflection on the revamped system we are in the process of creating.

Uncomfortable questions

To recap, the last time PISA results were published in December 2016 (a year after tests were sat) Welsh teenagers scored:

  • 477 points in reading – 16 points below the PISA average
  • 478 points in maths – 12 points below the PISA average
  • 485 points in science – 8 points below the PISA average

Wales’ return was another disappointment, with Kirsty Williams conceding that ‘we are not yet where we want to be’.

But given that it will be another three PISAs before pupils educated through new curriculum arrangements sit the tests (in 2027), it may be that we have to wait a little while longer for marked improvement.

This raises a series of uncomfortable questions.

For example, one must ask if it is acceptable that after five PISA tranches, and countless political promises, the goalposts can be shifted yet again.

Is it right that having waited 12 years for an upsurge in PISA performance, we might now have to resign ourselves to a further decade of patience?

Paradoxically, what we definitely do not need – regardless of what happens in December – is yet another change in direction.

The Welsh Government’s tendency to lurch from one policy to the next (very often, in response to PISA) has been prescribed by the OECD as breeding ‘reform fatigue’ – a condition from which all in education have suffered.

Instead, we need to be wary of knee-jerk reactions and, assuming there is broad commitment to the reform agenda set in train, remain true to our set course.

The temptation to tinker, and prove to the electorate that action is being taken to address our PISA struggles, must be resisted.

That is not to say PISA doesn’t matter and we should not dismiss the OECD’s assessment of our pupils’ knowledge and skills, regardless of how difficult it is to digest.

But it is not the be-all and end-all and there are a wide range of performance measures we can use to test the temperature of Welsh education.

Measured response

Wales’ education system has matured to a level at which it knows well its deficiencies – and there are actions in place to tackle them.

Perhaps, then, it is time to re-think PISA and its place within our reform agenda.

There is certainly an argument that says there is too much emphasis on international testing, and PISA alone should not dictate what happens in Welsh schools.

A healthy debate on our future involvement in and aspirations for PISA, would be no bad thing.

We cannot return to the same old arguments every three years and a more measured response is required moving forward.

We must be resolute, not reactionary – and resist the inevitable calls for an about-turn.

Take, for example, results published in 2010; described as a shock to what former Education Minister Leighton Andrews coined a ‘complacent system’, they triggered a radical overhaul of government policy.

But this year’s scores should come as no surprise, and Kirsty Williams must do as she did last time and fight against those baying for blood.

Education in Wales since devolution has been characterised by near-constant churn; no sooner has an initiative begun, than it has been shut down and, in many cases, actually reversed.

This is, to some extent, a by-product of the uncertain and volatile environment in which politicians operate – the lifespan of cabinet ministers is notoriously short and I haven’t come across a single one that doesn’t want to leave their mark during their time in office.

Inevitably, leaving a mark normally translates into ‘revolutionary’ new policy and, very often, change for change’s sake.

That is why, as I have written before, Ms Williams deserves great credit.

In following through a Labour politician’s plans (let’s not forget that Huw Lewis was the architect for the vast majority of current policy), she put the system’s needs before her own.

But she must do so again – and whatever December’s results have in store for Wales, Ms Williams must stand firm before the inevitable media storm.

So too must all actors engaged in Welsh education; only by speaking with confidence about our practice and aspirations for the future can we ensure our reform agenda is not derailed again.

If we truly believe in what we in Wales are doing, then we cannot be architects of our own downfall.

When the winds of change blow and the pressure to deviate grows, we must hold our nerve… even if more PISA pain is the price we have to pay.

A curriculum crossroads – don’t miss the chance to have your say


The countdown to Wales’ new draft curriculum is almost over.

There’s only a week left to wait until the fruits of four years’ labour is laid bare in full for the very first time.

Consultation on draft curriculum papers will begin on April 30 and end, as has recently been announced, on July 19.

And if the noticeable upsurge in social media activity is anything to go by, we should expect a rich and meaningful debate on what has been developed so far.

This, as I have hinted before, is not the time to pour scorn over what has been achieved by the Pioneer crusade, but instead a chance to embellish and, if necessary, reconfigure the loose framework that has been put in place.

It is important to remember that what will be presented after Easter is not the finished article – and there is still time to make a difference.

I for one will be responding to the Education Minister’s call for feedback, and it is with that in mind that I present here some of my more pressing observations – not for self-gratification, but in the hope that all comment will be duly contemplated…

1. Essential knowledge?

The relationship between knowledge and skills is perhaps the most salient of all curriculum talking points. I can’t be the only one tired of this false dichotomy. Like Ronnies Corbett and Barker, they come as a pair – and as night follows day, you can’t have one without the other.

Taking that as read, what Wales needs to decide is how much knowledge every child should reasonably expect to accumulate – and, more specifically, what it is they are entitled to learn about. This, unlike the place of knowledge and skills in our curricula, is far more open to debate.

Respecting the notion of subsidiarity on which the curriculum is built, there is, I believe, a strong argument for the inclusion of a carefully-considered roster of non-negotiables; things that all children, regardless of where in Wales they study, should have an introduction to. These could be broad themes, or items clustered together under respective Areas of Learning and Experience (AoLEs).

For example, to what extent must our young people learn about the biology of the human body? How well-versed should they be in the work of Dylan Thomas and William Shakespeare? And shouldn’t everybody be reminded of the atrocities of the Holocaust?

Of course, parity of teaching and learning will never be possible and there will always be discrepancies within and across schools (let’s not forget the level of subsidiarity that exists currently). But there is certainly some scope for considering how blank a canvas teachers will be given to paint.

2. A staggered start

Similarly, it has to be recognised that every school is different and will be coming to curriculum reform in its own unique way. Schools will have to work out for themselves what it all means for them, and while the Welsh Government’s collaborative approach to curriculum development is to be applauded, there have doubtless been winners and losers.

The Pioneer model has created an unfortunate divide between the curriculum haves and have-nots, albeit bringing together representatives from each and every school in Wales would have made larger scale co-construction a logistical nightmare.

Notwithstanding the industry and dedication of our Pioneer Schools, there have been many more on the outside of reform looking in than there have been taking part and it must be acknowledged that some schools will be two to three years behind early adopters.

What then are the implications for inspection – and is it reasonable to expect all schools to have made requisite curriculum alterations, and reached a similar level of delivery, by the same time?

A phased roll-out is sure to help, but it will not by itself balance the inequality between Pioneers and their peers.

3. Quality assurance

I’m unlikely to get many thank yous for this point, but I am yet to be suitably dissuaded of its significance. I have written in previous blogs about planned changes to the inspectorate in Wales, and I welcome Estyn’s ‘partial suspension’. After all, schools will need time and space to adapt to new arrangements, and inspectors themselves need opportunity to familiarise themselves with revised expectations.

But assuming there is to be wide variation in both practice and process (considerably more so than there is now), then surely there needs to be a way of ensuring what each and every school chooses to do is effective?

Quality assurance of localised curricula will be no easy undertaking and require a mindset shift among inspectors, cognisant of the fact that uniformity is no longer king. And besides, we cannot shy away from the reality that not every school is a good school, in the same way that every teacher is not a good teacher.

A strong, reputable and reliable inspectorate is as important now as it has ever been.

4. Managing expectation

Finally, a general thought on the curriculum’s growth and the huge amount of time and energy expended on getting us to this point. It is only right that we doff our hats to the army of industrious Pioneers, whose commitment and dedication has, for the most part, been unequivocal.

Their journey of discovery has not been without incident or setback, but those that I have come into contact with have been all the better for their experiences. There is no doubt that they have grown through the process, and have received more by way of professional learning than they will have done through many years’ statutory Inset.

However, we should not I think forget the cost of this collaboration – and, indeed, the significant amount of additional resource implementation of our new curriculum will require moving forward. I will leave it to others to argue the case for more funding (which, as has been well-documented, is unquestionably tight), but one does wonder what this investment – in both time and money – has meant for the system at large.

Curriculum reform has been all-encompassing and to the Welsh Department for Education what Brexit has been to Westminster. Question is, by putting all of our eggs into the basket of Successful Futures, have we lost sight of everything else?

There are sure to be unintended consequences resulting from our intense focus on all things curriculum, which may well mean a realigning of expectations with regards to other key initiatives. The long list of educational priorities needs to be recalibrated.

A matter of trust

I have not sought in these observations to analyse specifically key curriculum content or particular aspects of its proposed structure; there are people far more qualified to do so than I and I await their input with interest.

But what I have hopefully done is what all others active in our education system should do; challenge misconceptions, test higher-level thinking and contribute constructively to the curriculum conversation that will shape education in Wales for generations.

To my mind, the Welsh Government has no option but to listen to feedback, as without due consideration of sector concerns we are all set to lose.

Besides, the curriculum cannot be truly owned by the profession unless all have had the opportunity to input into it.

That means being respectful of each other’s views and not dismissing out of hand anything with more negative connotations, regardless of how painful some of it may sound.

For me, so much of the Welsh Government’s ‘National Mission’ for education boils down to trust in the professionalism of teachers to know what to do and when, in the same way you would trust a firefighter to put out a fire or a nurse to tend to the ill.

It is they who know what is best for the learners in their care, and the curriculum provides them with the vehicle from which to revitalise the practice of teaching.

But we must all be accountable for the decisions we take, and with a decade of bad press hanging over us, Wales finds itself at a crossroads.

Do we play it safe, slip into old habits or break completely from the mould?

These are defining moments, and consensus must be found.

Don’t miss the opportunity to have your say on the direction we take next.

A critical time for education in Wales


Politicians, party members and activists will be out in force over the coming weeks for the spring conference season.

But for educators in Wales, conference season is already in full swing.

Whether it be national headteacher gatherings, regional consortia events, pioneer workshops or the ongoing Welsh Government curriculum roadshow, schools have been in hot demand.

We can discuss the financial – and human – cost of such activity some other time, but for now I want to reflect on some of the key messages emanating from these meetings (a handful of which I have attended).

Not surprisingly, all roads currently lead to April 30, when the first iteration of Wales’ new national curriculum will land on the desks of school leaders up and down the country.

As previously noted, it will be a monumental moment in our education reform journey.

How those school leaders react and respond to what is published will, in my opinion, dictate what happens in the next three years ahead of statutory roll-out in 2022.

I cannot overstate the significance of Easter’s big reveal.

And, judging by educators’ bustling desk diaries, neither does our ruling Welsh Government.

The biggest risk

Speaking at a recent primary headteacher conference, Director of Education Steve Davies was at pains to rally the troops.

There was little to disagree with in his analysis that April 30 would be ‘critical’ to the evolution of our new national curriculum, and there was due acknowledgement of the different challenges this would present.

Mr Davies was refreshingly candid, warning that publication of the draft curriculum was in fact ‘the biggest risk’ facing Wales’ reform agenda.

As such, he made clear the need to ensure all school leaders, as the focal points of their wider school communities, have everything they need in order to engage with the curriculum documents effectively.

Messaging, he said, needs clarity and resistance to change must be countered by clear direction and a strong rationale.

After all, if headteachers are not suitably au fait with the juggernaut coming up on the not-too-distant horizon, there is little chance of them cascading appropriately requisite information to colleagues.

“The staff in your school will look to you and listen to you on April 30, and they will be looking for your response… we need you to ready your staff and your communities to be able to respond to the consultation.”

A consultation on the draft curriculum will run from publication until July (after which qualifications will be opened up to debate), and the education system is strongly encouraged to have its say.

Confirmation from Mr Davies that ‘we do expect real additions and changes to the curriculum’ as a result, was a very welcome intervention and will hopefully go some way to allaying the concerns of those who believe only in consultation for consultation’s sake.

Curriculum evolution

To my mind, the Welsh Government has no option but to listen to feedback, as without due consideration of sector concerns we are all set to lose (let’s not forget the pressure on politicians to justify their reform agenda).

Besides, the curriculum cannot be truly owned by the profession unless all have had the opportunity to input into it.

It is absolutely right, therefore, that Professor Graham Donaldson’s Successful Futures blueprint does not result in precisely the same curriculum he originally envisaged.

If co-construction was genuine and practitioner input heeded, Successful Futures should have evolved from its early iterations to suit distinctly Welsh needs.

Indeed, one would anticipate further evolution over the summer as the creative process enlists more of its actors.

Mr Davies noted that it was inevitable that schools would be coming to curriculum development in different ways, given the markedly different circumstances facing many in Wales.

He reassured headteachers that they would, given the essence of subsidiarity on which the curriculum is founded, be able to mould content to suit their own contexts – but, in my view, there must be recognition of the varying levels of involvement in the design process to date.

The reality, of course, is that the vast majority of schools in Wales will be playing catch-up on the curriculum before they have even started.

Notwithstanding the industry and dedication of our Pioneer Schools, there have been many more on the outside of reform looking in than there have been taking part.

Putting testing timescales to one side, it must be acknowledged that some schools will be two to three years behind early adopters.

That said, even those that have been ‘pioneering’ will have a job of work to do in communicating planned changes to colleagues in their own settings, with levels of understanding largely reliant on dissemination by individuals.

A series of regional engagement events, devised and delivered by Pioneer Schools, will support this endeavour and take place during May and June to help teachers, governors and the wider education community better understand the structure and content of each Area of Learning and Experience (AoLE).

Workshop materials will then be made available to participants for use in their own schools in a bid to ensure, as one AoLE lead put it, ‘a teacher in Cardiff is getting the same messages as a teacher in Colwyn Bay’.

Shifting habits and beliefs

Mr Davies relayed similar messages from the primary rally at this week’s secondary headteacher conference, where delegates were reminded that successful implementation of the curriculum hinged on shifting the ‘habits, beliefs, knowledge, skills and attitudes’ of teachers.

“If we have not been able to achieve that, the rich curriculum that we want to deliver for all of our children and young people will not be delivered as well as it should.”

Mr Davies conceded that supporting teachers to transition to new ways of working was a ‘massive job’, and there appears sound rationale for changing accountability mechanisms to better reflect the needs of our education system moving forward.

But the underlying message from both headteacher conferences was clear – the Welsh Government cannot by itself bring about the level of change required.

Education Minister Kirsty Williams can steer a course and help create the conditions for Successful Futures to thrive.

But ultimately, our commander-in-chief is heavily reliant upon an army of willing foot soldiers, without whom the curriculum is doomed to fail.

So we in Wales are met with two very clear options.

We either engage with the new curriculum outline (whether that be mapping a route for statutory implementation, or merely responding to the forthcoming consultation) – or we sit back and wait for the finished article to be presented to us.

Don’t get me wrong, there are lots of questions still to be answered – and I too have my concerns (more of them in my next blog).

But for the time being, it is imperative that we join in the conversation.

We cannot sit idly by and let the opportunity to feed into Successful Futures fall by the wayside.

Like it or not, curriculum reform is coming – and it is our responsibility to make the very best of it we can.

Scotland’s education system a pioneer for Wales


It’s exactly three weeks before Wales’ rugby elite lock horns with Scotland at Murrayfield.

By that point, Wales will either be well on their way to a Grand Slam – or likely playing for second behind our nearest neighbours, England.

Whatever the permutations, the surety is that this year’s battle of Celtic pride will be as keenly contested and hard fought as the last.

Off the field, the atmosphere in Edinburgh will be cordial and relaxed; a travelling army of Welsh men and women will be suitably welcomed and rivalries put to one side.

But it doesn’t need a rugby match to bring two nations together and the same spirit of goodwill and respect is also evident across our respective education systems.

Relations between education ministers, civil servants, schools and teachers have never been closer – for we in Wales are setting out on a journey of discovery our friends in Scotland started many moons ago.

Curriculum for Excellence, seen by many as the precursor for Wales’ Successful Futures, began life in 2004 with a re-imagining of the values, purposes and principles that underpin statutory education in Scottish schools.

It promised to transform education in Scotland by providing ‘a coherent, more flexible and enriched curriculum’ for learners aged three to 18, with a firm focus on the needs of the individual child and young person.

But the Scottish experience has not been altogether positive and there have been challenges – of that there is no doubt.

Lessons to learn

Curriculum for Excellence has been plagued by claims of unnecessary bureaucracy, increased teacher workload and confusion about its aims.

Scotland’s very noticeable decline across all PISA measures has added fuel to an already raging fire.

All this is relevant, of course, because of Wales’ unashamed admiration for Scotland’s approach to curriculum reform – and the fact that Professor Graham Donaldson, the architect of Successful Futures, was himself a founding father of Curriculum for Excellence.

Keir Bloomer is another such expert (he too was integral to the birth of Curriculum for Excellence) and was, for me at least, the main draw at a recent education event hosted by the Institute of Welsh Affairs (IWA).

Bloomer was the keynote speaker at the launch of the IWA’s Common Purposes report into Wales’ curriculum project and was not shy in coming forward with lessons we can learn from colleagues north of the border.

Curriculum for Excellence,” he warned, “has fallen well short of its potential”.

That no attempt was made to explain proposed changes to the broader community or to engage the teaching profession in ‘any serious exploration of the big ideas and how they might be put into practice’ was, in his view, Scotland’s first big mistake.

“In short, too much was taken for granted. As a result, Curriculum for Excellence has always been subject to a myriad of conflicting interpretations.”

Bloomer continued by suggesting not enough was done to build capacity in the Scottish system, noting that while some teachers welcomed the freedom afforded by the new curriculum, ‘many more felt insecure and threatened’.

“This lack of professional self-confidence resulted in numerous calls for guidance. The original aim had been to develop a limited amount of high-level advice. Soon, however, a large-scale industry had been created, producing guidance by the ton.”

Another ‘source of difficulty’ according to Bloomer, was the ‘insistence on lock-step change’, with all schools expected to fall into line together.

The Pioneer approach to curriculum development in Wales was, he said, a welcome development and an indication ‘that this is a lesson that has already been learned’.

Further warnings relating to the introduction of new qualifications, and the subsequent knock-on effect to teacher practice, were well made, as was the need for teachers to be ‘brought onside and encouraged’.

This, in my view, was a particularly salient point as we draw ever nearer to the first published draft of our new curriculum.

Mature and honest dialogue

Available online at the end of April, working documents will be open to consultation and those who have not yet been involved in the development process must be given the chance to have their say.

As I have written here before, Easter’s big reveal has major implications and how practitioners react to that which they have been presented will likely dictate how successfully our fledgling curriculum evolves.

Above all else, the professional voice must be heard.

A mature and honest dialogue is needed, and the Welsh Government can earn trust by heeding practitioner concerns.

True, a new collaborative ethos and brokering of relationships between policymakers and the people they serve has had a galvanizing effect, but there are many more schools out of the curriculum loop than in it – and the Welsh Government must win hearts and minds all over again.

Bloomer resolved that it was ‘impossible to view the implementation of Curriculum for Excellence as anything other than seriously flawed’ and his suggestion that Wales should ‘find out what Scotland did and do something different’ when enacting Successful Futures was nothing if not sobering.

Nevertheless, despite the obvious faults in Scotland’s curriculum adventure, Bloomer remains resolute that ‘Scottish education is much the better for Curriculum for Excellence’ – something that we will be well advised to remember when times (inevitably) get tough.

Overcoming inertia

I was given my own, first-hand insight into the realities of curriculum design and development during a study visit to Scotland last year.

There I spoke with teachers, student-teachers and teacher educators – and each had a different reason as to why Curriculum for Excellence had faltered.

This, in and of itself, is interesting – and suggests there were a number of different things conspiring against the curriculum project.

One considered the pace of roll-out decisive, with school leaders given insufficient time to grapple with what was being asked of them.

Despite there being six years between the publication of the curriculum’s founding document and its initial implementation in 2010, teachers were apparently underprepared for its arrival in schools.

Another contributing factor was said to be the new administrative demands on teachers. It was clear that forward-planning and lesson preparation was weighing heavy on some (ironically, the lack of ready-made resources was considered a huge drawback).

Perhaps hardest to swallow was the suggestion that teachers were not mentally geared for change.

‘Overcoming inertia is quite difficult,’ said one expert in the field, who felt many had been ‘de-skilled and de-motivated’ by years of prescription.

It served as a timely reminder that curriculum reform demands a lot of the teaching profession and, as Bloomer suggested, will take a significant number out of their comfort zone.

Ensuring teachers are properly supported through the forthcoming transition will, of course, be paramount.

Sign posts

Looking back, it would have been inconceivable that comparisons with Scotland were not made – for good or ill – and they will doubtless continue long into the future. There is no getting away from that.

But one of the great benefits of having drawn so heavily upon the experience of another country is that we are not working in the dark, and there will be plenty of sign posts to guide us along the way.

The ongoing change process is daunting, yes – but it is not quite an adventure into the unknown. In some respects, Scotland’s is our pioneer system, as pioneer schools have been for colleagues in Wales.

They have given us a lead by which to follow.

That’s not to suggest that curriculum reform was ever going to be easy – and we are sure to face many more challenges in the coming months and years.

It is important, therefore, that we listen and learn from the likes of Bloomer – and not dismiss out of hand anything with more negative connotations, regardless of how painful some of it may sound.

It would be folly to turn a blind eye to constructive criticism (we must not lose sight of our moral obligation to making this work), and there needs to be an open forum for debate between policymakers and the system at large.

Indeed, it was reassuring to see so many high-ranking civil servants in Bloomer’s audience – not least Education Minister Kirsty Williams and her head of department. That they were present to hear his rallying cry certainly implies that the Welsh Government is open to suggestions.

That said, we cannot look to Scotland as some kind of panacea – our sister system will not have all the answers and the trick will be working out what of their experience is applicable to the Welsh context, and what is not.

And given that there are countless other countries plotting a similar curriculum course, we must continue to look far and wide for inspiration. We cannot, for want of a better phrase, put all of our eggs in one basket.